“A thoughtless policy can be as unfair as, and functionally equivalent to, intentional discrimination” (Rodriguez et al., 2014). 1999. 17–34. In 1963, a federal court of appeals struck down “separate but equal” under the Act in Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital. The analysis can include numerical disparities (in park access, for example), statistical evidence, anecdotal evidence, empirical studies and surveys, demographic data, geographical information system mapping, and financial analysis. Trends in the educational gradient of mortality among US adults aged 45 to 84 years: Bringing regional context into the explanation. 2016. Call your primary care office for a phone or video visit. The committee further recommended that “state and federal governments evaluate the health effects and costs of major legislation, regulations, and policies that could have a meaningful impact on health. These and other examples demonstrate that environmental and civil rights laws can be used together, with the strengths in one body of policy and law shoring up challenges in the other. Available at www.nps.gov/public_health/hp/hphp/press/HealthyParksHealthyPeople_eGuide.pdf (accessed June 24, 2016). In contrast, families receiving tenant-based subsidies like housing vouchers do not typically use them to move to neighborhoods that are substantially different from where they were previously living, although some research indicates that families receiving vouchers who have school-age children will move if housing is available near higher-performing schools (Ellen et al., 2016; Sanbonmatsu et al., 2011). An important starting point for promoting health equity is the analysis of disparities that bear more heavily on one group of people than another. You can still contact us through the main number 443-885-3238 between 8:30 am and 5:00 pm or send an email to schp@morgan.edu.. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Health insurance coverage: Early release of estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, January–March 2015. Pettit, B., and B. Other studies have found that the income gradient also exists across racial and ethnic groups and that the relationship between income and health is stronger than between race and health (Woolf et al., 2015). https://www.huduser.gov/portal/datasets/lihtc.html (accessed December 16, 2016). Washington, DC 20005-1503, Hazard Mitigation and Disaster Recovery Planning Division, Regional and Intergovernmental Planning Division, Membership for Allied Professionals & Citizens, City Planning and Management Division Overview, Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division, Hazard Mitigation and Disaster Recovery Planning Division Overview, Housing and Community Development Division, Planning and the Black Community Division, Regional and Intergovernmental Planning Division Overview, Small Town and Rural Planning Division Overview, Sustainable Communities Division Overview. In what education administrators might think of as student services, policies and procedures exist concerning screening for health conditions as well as for counseling and mental health services. U.S. Department of Education takes action to deliver equity for students with disabilities. See Box 6-1 for an example of a community-driven neighborhood plan designed to make some of these changes. The research is organised in four themes: health sector reform, financial risk protection, health workforce performance and scaling up. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 29(5):444–452. National Park Service rim of the valley final study best practice environmental justice. public reporting can help achieve goals to reduce disparities and improve quality and efficiency of care for all patients. Policies and Priorities. Others define services addressing such needs as “wraparound services,” referring to linkages or services health care providers can offer to ensure, for example, that patients have transportation to routine health care appointments, have adequate food in their homes, and obtain legal (e.g., for tenant-landlord disputes about environmental exposure to asthma triggers) or social service assistance. 2015. Manchester Community Health Center took a first step by conducting a review of its administrative and patient policies. 2005. 2016. We would like to acknowledge the following organisations and individuals, who (among others) have generously provided policies for inclusion in the Policy Bank: 9 Months Plus Charitable Trust Accenture Asylum Seeker Resource Centre (VIC) Doncare Community Services (VIC) Eyre Peninsula Community… The growing gap in life expectancy by income: Implications for federal programs and policy responses. 12352. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Resting upon a number of federal and state laws, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Fair Housing Act of 1968, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, related regulations, and executive orders, a civil rights approach can lead to changes in structural inequities, policies, and practices that perpetuate racial, ethnic, and other disparities. First, ESSA calls for the identification of evidence-based interventions. 2011. James, J. Los Angeles, CA: The City Project. Trends in mortality differentials and life expectancy for male social security-covered workers, by socieoeconomic status. Along with a resurgence in capital investment in the urban core, the authors found increased racial and class segregation in addition to intensified discrimination and exclusion in gentrified neighborhoods (Wyly and Hammel, 2004). Twelve states play an important role in improving income and health equity by augmenting the EITC through state tax law. Some hospitals have shown greater interest in community-wide health investments and the underlying factors that affect population health rather than maintaining the more narrow focus on health care services and funding offsets (Rosenbaum and Choucair, 2016). mentation remains to be evaluated.18 The recommendations and principles in the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights apply to other federal, state, and local agencies in addition to EPA. Thus, medical bills play a large role in individuals’ overall financial picture, including their ability to save and make other investments. As one strategy to support a focus on health disparities, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services could undertake research on payment reforms that could spur accounting for social risk factors in the value-based payment programs it oversees. Woolf, S. H., L. Aron, L. Dubay, S. M. Simon, E. Zimmerman, and K. X. Luk. Does gentrification contribute to segregation? Moreover. Olshansky, S. J., T. Antonucci, L. Berkman, R. H. Binstock, A. Boersch-Supan, J. T. Cacioppo, B. New York, for example, extends benefits to noncustodial parents, which has been found to increase employment and child support payments (Nichols and Rothstein, 2016). 2015. The contribution of the minimum wage to U.S. wage inequality over three decades: A reassessment. We have […] Housing affordability and federal HUD policies are part of a larger dialogue concerning housing that also includes land use, residential and commercial development, natural resource use, transportation, and, even more broadly, changing neighborhoods and concerns over potential residential disruption. Code of Federal Regulations External The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by executive departments and agencies of the federal government. The causes and consequences of prison growth in the United States. 2016. Wright, G. 2013. Causal effects of mental health treatment on education outcomes for youth in the justice system. 2012. In addition to the tax code and government transfers, federal and state laws shape incomes through minimum wage provisions. American Sociological Review 69(2):151–169. See, for example, Inclusive Communities slip opinion at page 10. Community Health Choice, Inc. (CHC) is dedicated to improve access to and delivery of affordable, comprehensive, quality, customer-oriented health care to residents of Harris County and its environs. On the other hand, proponents of gun rights argue that gun availability deters crime and enhances personal defense. These unintended consequences could in turn lead to deterioration in the quality of health care for socially at-risk populations and widening health disparities. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Use these APA resources to assess, monitor, and report progress toward healthy planning goals. On average, urban and rural counties have higher rates of the uninsured than suburban counties. Miller, S. 2012. 29 The Corps has agreed to conduct a similar analysis of the benefits and burdens of, and alternatives to, the Dakota Access Pipeline, in consultation with the Standing Rock Sioux and with full public input before issuing any permits (Darcy, 2016). (2016) examined the income-longevity relationship across time and across local areas. This crosscutting approach can be applied across different areas such as health, park access, education, housing, transportation, and others. The National Academies Committee on Accounting for Socioeconomic Status in Medicare Payment Programs has shown in its reports (NASEM, 2016a,b,c,e) that value-based payment systems that do not account for social risk factors can have unintended adverse consequences, including providers and health plans avoiding low-income patients and underpayment to providers disproportionately serving socially at-risk populations (such as safety net providers). 2015. Because government transfers largely benefit those at lower income levels, taking into account government transfers attenuates the income gap somewhat. Today, funding for public housing is on the decline, and there are fewer than 1.1 million public housing units, down from 1.4 million units in the early 1990s, after an active effort to scale back public housing. HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Drug and Alcohol Dependence 149:108–116. On the one hand, repeated episodes of large-scale gun violence in the United States have provoked proponents of gun control to argue for stricter policies to regulate the availability of guns in communities. In The City Project Blog. Consistent with previous findings, they found that higher income is related to higher life expectancy and that lower income is related to lower life expectancy (NASEM, 2015; NRC and IOM, 2013; Waldron, 2007). Associations of housing mobility interventions for children in high-poverty neighborhoods with subsequent mental disorders during adolescence. 32Watson v. City of Memphis, 373 U.S. 526 (1963). At the same time, a number of equitable development and housing policy tools have been developed that can assist communities to balance opportunities across local groups so that more can benefit from development efforts (PolicyLink, 2016a; Wilson et al., 2008). //Www.Publicintegrity.Org/2015/08/03/17668/Environmental-Racism-Persists-And-Epa-One-Reason-Why ( accessed September 28, 2016 ) of means-tested transfer programs in the level adults!: //www.huduser.gov/portal/datasets/picture/yearlydata.html ( accessed October 24, 2016 ): //healthyschoolscampaign.org/policy/a-new-national-initiative-highlights-the-link-between-health-and-education ( accessed October 24 2016...? https: //www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/114th-congress-2015-2016/reports/51361-HouseholdIncomeFedTaxes_OneCol.pdf ( accessed June 3, 2016 ) investment fund wage inequality over three:... ) examined the income-longevity relationship across time and across regions the COVID-19 pandemic at the final community on... 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