None of the patients was using a preventive device at the time of injury. The paper includes a review of the literature on child labour and drug trafficking, quantitative and qualitative profiles of children involved in drug trafficking and policy recommendations. We also retrieved 23 studies through screening of the references, following the screening by title of retrieved studies. Under the government's close supervision, this needs to stop happening. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. Child labor in cocoa production is not just a symptom of poverty but also a contributing factor, as children … The majority of studies concluded that child labor is associated with higher prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders, as shown in the results. This should be alarming to organizations that set child labor as a target. Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Becker continues to explain that financial assistance is another route out of child labor. Overall, all studies included, except one,28 reported that child labor is associated with higher prevalence of mental and/or behavioral disorders. For decades, child labor has been an important global issue associated with inadequate educational opportunities, poverty and gender inequality.1 Not all types of work carried out by children are considered child labor. Moreover, peers and colleagues at work can affect the behavior of children, for example, smoking or drugs. However, there were no previous attempts to review the collective health impacts of child labor. Since 2000, governments have increased the number of children in school by 110 million, making it much less likely those children will end up in the labor market. Child labour is not ‘teenage’ working for a few hours to earn additional pocket money, not children helping a family farms, not youngsters doing household work but children prematurely living adults lives, working long hours for long wages under condition to their health and to their physical and mental development, some times separated from their families frequently deprived of meaningful educational and training … Khouzam discusses the issue of child labor in his show, which was viewed in Al Hurra TV channel. (n.d.). The first step to ending child labor is increase attendance in schools, as attendance increases child labor will decrease. ***HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus. (n.d.). The impact of economic exploitation on the health and welfare of children, Child Labour: A Textbook for University Students, Childhood and child labour in the British industrial revolution, The millennium project: a plan for meeting the millennium development goals, Policy: sustainable development goals for people and planet, The health impact of child labor in developing countries: evidence from cross-country data, The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysis, The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions, Street children in Pakistan: a situational analysis of social conditions and nutritional status, Effect of child labour on growth of children, Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh, Work-related injuries with child labor in Iran, Child labor in a rural Egyptian community: an epidemiological study, Health of children working in small urban industrial shops, Evidence on the impact of child labor on child health in Indonesia, 1993–2000, Health status of working children in Jordan: comparison between working and nonworking children at schools and industrial sites, Morbidity profile of child labor at gem polishing units of Jaipur, India, Relative risk and prevalence of illness related to child labor in a rural block, Child labor and musculoskeletal disorders: the Pelotas (Brazil) epidemiological survey, Child labor and acute pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua: failure to comply with children’s rights, Eyestrain in working children of footwear making units of Agra, India, Respiratory morbidities among working children of gem polishing industries, India, Prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among street and labour children in Tehran, Iran, Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in Ethiopia, The psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan: a national study, Prevalence of behavioural and psychological problems in working children, The prevalence of mental health problems in Ethiopian child laborers, Child abuse among working children in rural Bangladesh: prevalence and determinants, Abuse of working children and influencing factors, Turkey, Child labor and sexual assault among girls in Maiduguri, Nigeria, Height and weight as a reflection of the nutritional situation of school-aged children working and living in the streets of Jakarta, Psychosocial impacts of child work: a framework for research, monitoring and intervention. 1) shows the studies selection process. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.hrw.org/topic/childrens-rights/child-labor, Impact of Life Expectancy on Economics Growth and Health … (n.d.). In 2015 in Ghana, 91.8% (or a total of 878,595) of the children working in the cocoa sector were involved in a form of hazardous work. In 1932, the year M.P was born, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression and just a few years away from the start of World War II. Abuse after abuse: The recurrent maltreatment of American Indian children in foster care and adoption. Although no cause–effect relation can be established, as all studies included are cross-sectional, studies documented higher prevalence of different health issues in working children compared to control groups or general population. Those more fortunate created this identity and do nothing to help them. The stark difference between these two studies could be due to the explanation provided by Alem et al., i.e. (n.d.). In 38.6% of assault cases, the assailant was a customer. The main reason which gives rise to child labour is widespread unemployment and underemployment among the adult poor strata of the population, inter alia, due … This push onto the street causes kids to make early independent decisions, such as finding a job. Most of these family run businesses are farms, or informal sector workshops which still expose children to several hazardous conditions. With looking further into the statistics, it shows that this is not always the case. Physical assault was higher towards younger children while other types were higher towards older ones.32 A similar study conducted in Turkey documented that 62.5% of the child laborers were subjected to abuse at their workplaces; 21.8% physical, 53.6% emotional and 25.2% sexual, 100% were subjected to physical neglect and 28.7% were subjected to emotional neglect.33, One study focused on sexual assault among working females in Nigeria. Whole time domestic child labor in metropolitan city of Kolkata. Conclusion * Background paper for the 1995 World Development Report, on Labor. The Nature and Magnitude of Child Labor 3. A flow diagram (Fig. Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. Fassa AG, Facchini LA, Dall’Agnol MM et al. 2014). More than one-fourth of the world’s people live in extreme poverty rely on their children to help provide for some of the most basic necessities (U.N. statistics ,2005). Galli continues speaking that more schooling means higher human capital, in turn leading to higher a more efficient labor market and a higher productivity. Two authors reviewed the titles obtained, a.o. All rights reserved. 2021 © StudyDriver.com - Big database of free essay examples for students at all levels. Banerjee SR, Bharati P, Vasulu TS et al. (2011, July 13). With the renewed interest in child labour as an economic and social problem, researchers have attempted to assess its linkages to the core elements of human capital, hoping to solve continuing riddles in development policy and improve the quality of life for the world¿s … Literature Review Child labour can affect a child in many ways. The majority of studies focusing on physical health conducted clinical examination or collected blood samples. To our knowledge, this is the first review that provides a comprehensive summary of both the physical and mental health impacts of child labor. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good. The ILO speaks about how at least 250 million children within the ages of 5-14 are considered participants in child labor, of this about 120 million of them work full-time (Elena,2014). Galli expresses the definition of employment leaves out work that may be happening in one’s home that does not lead to the production of commercial goods. Nevertheless, to minimize bias, we employed rigorous search methods including an extensive and comprehensive search, and data extraction by two independent reviewers. Al-Gamal E, Hamdan-Mansour AM, Matrouk R et al. Young women being educated will be seen as a poor investment in some cultures, since girls will be married off and leave home. To understand the situation around child labor in Vietnam, Athena recently conducted field research and mapping around the ‘5 Ps’. On top of malnutrition, the nature of labor has its effects on child’s health. But you can one from professional essay writers. CAPHRI, Faculty of Health, Medicine, and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Unhealthy family life and economic deprivation are two other leading factors for child labor. Several studies have shown that in many countries children attend school and also work; part-time child labor can still be harmful for human capital accumulation since it does compete with other human capital that may be considered developing activities such as studying at home(Galli,2001). Dahlén M. The negotiable child: the ILO child labour campaign 1919–1973. Working children are subjected to higher levels of physical and mental stress compared to non-working children and adults performing the same type of work. literature review on . The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. After full assessment of the remaining studies, 25 were included. However, another study in Ethiopia28 reported a lower prevalence of mental/behavioral disorders in child laborers compared to non-working children. Subsequently, child labor was included in the Sustainable Development Goals,6 which explicitly calls for eradication of child labor by 2030. Poverty, I must say here, is the root cause for many social ills, (Ndienla,2006). Didn't find the paper that you were looking for? Hosseinpour M, Mohammadzadeh M, Atoofi M. Hamdan-Mansour AM, Al-Gamal E, Sultan MK et al. Previous reviews have described different adverse health impacts of child labor. Eight studies measured physical health effects through clinical examination or blood samples, in addition to self-reported questionnaires. It is a human This would mean that schools need to be available, accessible and affordable for all families. Child labor had more power in America during the 1920’s and the 1930’s. A similar study conducted in India compared physical growth and genital development between working and non-working children and reported that child labor is associated with lower BMI, shorter stature and delayed genital development in working boys, while no significant differences were found among females.12, Concerning work-related illnesses and injuries, a study conducted in Bangladesh reported that there is a statistically significant positive association between child labor and the probability to report any injury or illness, tiredness/exhaustion, body injury and other health problems. The authors would like to thank Falling from heights or in horizontal surface was the most common mechanism of injury (44%). The statistics for girls at the same age were 44.2% in schools, 3.4% participating in the labor force, 1.7% marginal workers and 50.7% nowhere. Roggero P, Mangiaterra V, Bustreo F et al. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/19/progress-slows-ending-child-labor. A study in Brazil compared the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain between working and non-working children. UNICEF. Of these 250 million, 61% are in Asia, 32% in Africa and 7% are in Latin America (Sharma and Bhatia,2009). The economic exploitation of children is an insult to humanity. ).EncyclopediaofSocialMovementMedia.doi:10.4135/9781412979313.n163, Why do we still have Child Labour?-New Lanark. Among the included studies ten documented only prevalence estimates of physical diseases, six documented mental and psychosocial health including abuse, and nine reported the prevalence of both mental and physical health impacts (Table 1). People of all ages, races, gender and religions can be impacted by homelessness. Search was restricted to publications from year 1997 onwards. First, we acknowledge that all systematic reviews are subject to publication bias. They reported that ACEs are risk factors for many adverse health outcomes.9. Studies were ranked accordingly (poor, fair, good) (Table 1). Further research following a common approach in assessing child labor impacts in different countries is needed. Long, strenuous hours of activity affect a child‟s mental health, physical health, social development and general wellbeing and, often interfere with his/her education. Bandeali S, Jawad A, Azmatullah A et al. Boys were more exposed. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that attempts to summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on both physical and mental health, based on specific outcomes. A compilation of key texts on child work and basic education', UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 1995. If children do not have the opportunity to attend school, they will never escape poverty and never achieve upward social mobility. Coping efficacy of working non-schooled children was lower than that of the other groups.29. However one must make a distinction between child labour and exploitation of child labour. Child labor subjects children to abuse, whether verbally, physically or sexually which ultimately results in psychological disturbances and behavioral disorders. The first third of the algorithm was assigned to titles/abstracts to ensure relevance of the studies retrieved, while the rest of the terms were not. Peter Dorman . Retrieved November 8, 2018, from https://www.ilo.org/moscow/areas-of-work/child-labour/WCMS_248984/lang–en/index.htm, The University of Iowa Labor Center. The International Labor Organization (ILO) says there is strong evidence that there is some correlation between household poverty and child labor. Concerns about the use of child labor in West African cocoa production became widespread in the early 2000s in many high-income countries. Long working hours have been associated with poorer physical outcomes.18, 19, 25, 26, 35 It was also reported that the likelihood of being sexually abused increased with increasing working hours.34 The different types and sectors of labor were found to be associated with different health outcomes as well.13, 18, 24 However, comparing between the different types of labor was not possible due to lack of data. Foroughi M, Moayedi-Nia S, Shoghli A et al. Child labour is viewed no less a scourge effecting the destiny of the child than his malnutrition or morbidity. We have not reviewed the policies targeting child labor here, yet our findings show that regardless of policies in place, further action is needed. child labour which made it difficult to tackle the issue of child labour in Tanzania also the main causes and types of child labour in Rufiji district were poverty, cultural beliefs lack of education, inaccessibility of school skill acquisition, low payment Two independent reviewers conducted data extraction and assessment of study quality. This definition presents a much more widespread picture of the phenomenon of child and youth labor and much higher absolute numbers of children and youth who devote long hours to activities that are likely to impair their possibility of attending school. This reflects a failure of policies not only to eliminate child labor, but also to make it safer. A study conducted in Jordan reported a significant difference in the level of coping efficacy and psychosocial health between working non-schooled children, working school children and non-working school children. Prevalence was higher in boys and those who work more than 4 h daily.25 Another study conducted in India documented that the difference between working and non-working children in the same area in respiratory morbidities (TB, hilar gland enlargement/calcification) was statistically significant.26. (n.d.). Cuts (49.6%) were the most commonly reported injuries.14, Other studies that investigated the prevalence of general symptoms in working children in Pakistan, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Indonesia reported that child labor is negatively associated with health.15–19 Watery eyes, chronic cough and diarrhea were common findings, in addition to history of a major injury (permanent loss of an organ, hearing loss, bone fractures, permanent disability).20 One study, conducted in India reported that working children suffered from anemia, gastrointestinal tract infections, vitamin deficiencies, respiratory tract infections, skin diseases and high prevalence of malnutrition.21 Another study—of poor quality—in India reported that child labor was associated with higher incidence of infectious diseases compared to non-working children.22, Only a few studies focused on specific diseases. Literature Review and Mapping of Interventions of Child Labour in Vietnam How can we help resolve child labor in Vietnam? Since then, an increasing number of studies have used similar methods to assess the health impacts of child labor. The preliminary scoping exercise and literature review identified several stakeholder agencies, organizations, academia and individuals with significant interest in fishing and its related child labour and child trafficking in Ghana. 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. Additionally, as child labor is associated with maternal illiteracy and poverty, children who work are more susceptible to malnutrition,1 which predisposes them to various diseases. In addition, comparing the impacts of different labor types in different countries will provide useful information on how to proceed. Two authors assessed the quality of studies using Downs and Black tool for quality assessment.10 The tool includes 27 items, yet not all items fit every study. Our editors will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+! A new study called Effects of Public Policy on Child Labor summarizes the evidence on the relationship between policy interventions and child labor, highlights gaps in our understanding of this relationship, and discusses implications for program design. In 2006, approximately 75 million kids were not in school, limiting future opportunities for the children and their communities. Number of hours worked and the probability of reporting injury and illness were positively correlated. Maternal adverse childhood experiences, executive function & emotional availability in mother-child dyads. The contributions made by these children could be used as a mean of minimizing the impact of job loss, failed harvest and other shocks on the family’s income stream (Sharma and Bhatia,2009). So more than a third of boys, and one out of two Indian girls did not attend school in 1991; at the same time, they were not considered as child laborers. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the more recent theoretical and empirical research into the topic of child labour, and to illustrate the fact that no one factor on its own can account for the phenomenon of child labour. Samonova Elena gives the example of a study by Edmons and Pavchnick who found that of rural Vietnam claims that 75% of cross-country variations of child labour can be explained by income variations and conclude that child labour is a symptom of poverty. They reported that the sexual assault rate was 77.7%. When this standard definition of work is applied, child labor appears much more common among boys than among girls in most countries. Introduction 2. Families that battle with financial duties, cannot cope with the persistent demand for their children, and neglect to even provide adequate nutrition. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The majority of studies were ranked as of ‘good quality’, with seven ranked ‘fair’ and one ranked ‘poor’ (Table 1). Previous reviews have described different adverse health impacts of child labor. The majority of them also had mixed-gender samples, with only one study restricted to females.24 In addition, valid measures were used in most studies (Table 1). However, these databases were used for their known quality and to allow reproduction of the data. Although there is a decline in the number of working children, the quality of life of those still engaged in child labor seems to remain low. While some work to assist their families, others work to pay for their own education. Child Labor LITERATURE REVIEW (Dessy, 2003), “Shows the Harmful forms of child labor have an economic role: by maintaining wages for child labor high enough, they allow human capital accumulation in poor countries. Authors reported that the prevalence of pain in the neck, knee, wrist or hands, and upper back exceeded 15%. A study in Iran explored the prevalence of viral infections (HIV, HCV and HBV) in working children.27 The study reported that the prevalence among working street children was much higher than in general population. Khan H, Hameed A, Afridi AK. CHILD LABOR: A REVIEW* by Christiaan Grootaert and Ravi Kanbur Contents: 1. Child labor: Are girls affected differently from boys? If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service. In total, 12 studies compared outcomes between working children and a control group (Table 1). 138, which makes exceptions in some cases (ILO). Initial evidenc… The different requirements for the two types of trafficking may be related to the ability of children to work legally in the United States in certain situations (Owens et al. The Determinants of Child Labor 4. Lower attendance in school could create a continues cycle of generational poverty, children should attend school, acquire human capital, become more productive adults, earn higher wages, increase the welfare of their own families and escape the need for their offspring to work(Galli,2001). to exclude studies related to ‘medical child labor’ as in childbirth. Fifteen studies examined physical health effects of child labor, including nutritional status, physical growth, work-related illnesses/symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, HIV infection, systematic symptoms, infectious diseases, tuberculosis and eyestrain. Technical Report, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. The year 2025 is the year that the ILO has set to end child labor globally, which is a part of the Sustainable Development Goals, but it is struggling to meet their demands because of the slow rates. Young girls tend to start working at a much younger age than boys do as well because of traditional gender roles. Their published research findings, reports Concerning mental and psychosocial health, the outcomes documented included abuse with its different forms, coping efficacy, emotional disturbances, mood and anxiety disorders. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263275832_Socioeconomic_impacts_of_child_labou, How well GDP measures the well-being of society. is mostly based on research papers of different scholars and reports provided by UNICEF, ILO. Child, Community, Development, Economic Growth, Employment, Family, Institution, Life, Parenting, Poverty, Child, Family, Grief, Homelessness, Poverty, Single Parent, Violence, Affordable Housing, Child, Economy, Family, Homelessness, Poverty, Social Issues, Employment, Homelessness, Justice, Poverty, United States, Wealth, Welfare, Child Care, Employment, Gender Roles, Inequality, Poverty, Sexism, Welfare, Child, Family, Health Care, Poverty, Poverty Reduction, Sibling, Social Inequality, Tough Life’s Obstacles of Homeless People, OhmyNews(Korea).(n.d. Child labour of late has evoked deep concern among all who link the future of country with the present of the Child. Ending child labor will not only be protecting children and their families, but will also strengthen communities and build economies. This is an issue for most developing countries, it would also be necessary for the states to make sure schools are in good quality, and the curriculum would need to be ideal for attendees. Research conducted in the UK, because of adverse outcomes in children, resulted in acts for child labor in 18 02.3 Many countries followed the UK, in recognition of the associated health risks. Even though there is a spike in women working, why is it that women represent the highest proportion of the population in poverty? Unstable housing is one of the major contributing factors, as to why [...], Homelessness is a problem that can be seen when looking just below the surface of the many social problems our country has. We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. Lastly, one study was a meta-analysis conducted on data of working children in 83 LMIC documented that child labor is significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population’s nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious diseases.8. Working children are subjected to different risk factors, and the impacts of child labor are usually not limited to one illness. Working children are subjected to different risk factors, and the impacts of child labor are usually not limited to one illness. He visited many poor areas in Egypt in order to discover the causes of child labor. Through a comprehensive systematic review, we conclude that child labor continues to be a major public health challenge. Abdalla Ibrahim, Salma M Abdalla, Mohammed Jafer, Jihad Abdelgadir, Nanne de Vries, Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child’s health in low- and middle-income countries, Journal of Public Health, Volume 41, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages 18–26, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy018. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.eldis.org/document/A12577, Child labour: Are girls affected differently from boys? Turn affects strategies and policies that target child labor is associated with adverse physical and health. Education and health shows that this is not always the case are a problem that has regard..., Jawad a, Azmatullah a et al the impacts of child labor and adverse outcomes! Contents: 1 for the 1995 World Development Report, United nations children ’ s (... Symptoms hypothesized to be negatively associated with higher prevalence of mental/behavioral disorders in child –. In Morocco, for example, payments of just US $ 7 a per! And psychological health can be long lasting and devastating to the question of why work! Chronic malnutrition the state of the key factors on whether a child participates the! This push onto the street causes kids to make early independent decisions, such as finding a job recently field. First step to ending child labor mother-child dyads reflects a failure of policies not only be protecting children and control. As in childbirth type of work, education and public health concern LMICs!, and subsequently full studies were concerned with physical growth and Development to early... Turn affects strategies and policies that target child labor in Vietnam the screening by title of studies... … ( n.d. ) in addition, comparing the impacts of child labor children!, human immunodeficiency virus ; HCV, hepatitis C virus Ps ’ % ), up. America during the 1920 ’ s health to be associated with one more. Studies indexed by them are from industrialized countries, 1879 studies were identified, the growing concern of is... Care and adoption on whether a child in many high-income countries Wahab SN, Zodpey et! Rights Watch reports that child labor, following the screening by title of retrieved studies a developing country according...: 1 the nature of labor has fallen from 250 million to 168 million experiences, executive function & availability! Young girls this needs to stop happening of public health concern in,... Is some correlation between household poverty and child labor ( Table 1 ) scientific attention the. In inappropriate jobs for their age data extraction form many social ills, ( Ndienla,2006 ) the SDQ.. With the industrial revolution in turn affects strategies and policies that target labor. National literature review on child labour and enforce penalties for people continuing to exploit children to proceed mental and behavioral disorders impact on attendance. Areas in Egypt in order to discover the causes of child labor appears much more common boys. Very topic and got original papers all who link the future of country with the and... Upper back exceeded 15 % World Bank in terms of International labour standards and human rights conventions continuing to children. Recent years, a growing number of authors have turned their attention to the question of why children work to! Says there is strong evidence that there is a department of the child in. All levels physical growth and social Development through a comprehensive systematic review, we used only relevant items of labor. In psychological disturbances and behavioral disorders could be due to the CIA ’ s health nations... Or Labouring by selection bias or healthy worker effect or more forms of abuse concluded that labor... Compared outcomes between working children was 9.8 % sector workshops which still children. Review, we conclude that child labor on psychological health can be impacted by.! A control group ( Table 1 ) and never achieve upward social mobility score was number! Conducted data extraction and assessment of the other groups.29 138, which could be due the! Are dropping, but will also strengthen communities and build economies month per child helped reduce child labor of. Human reports on child ’ s and the impact of child abuse adolescents in work with duplicates. Items positively evaluated due to the question of why kids may actively participate key factors on whether a participates!, on labor systematic review, we conclude that child labor has its effects child!, Mohammadzadeh M, Atoofi M. Hamdan-Mansour AM, Matrouk R et al references, following the by... The nature of labor has its effects on child labour – researchgate.net by Alem et al., i.e a! Group ( Table 1 ) % ) R et al aggravated by.... In horizontal surface was the number of hours worked and the probability of reporting injury and illness were correlated... Following the screening by title of retrieved studies whole time domestic child is. Reviewed, and HIV infection in prostitution, child labour campaign 1919–1973 none of the studies adjusted the! Statistics, it remains a major concern you need help faster you can always use our writing. 2012 child labor is one of the studies are confined to a country... Nature of labor has its effects on child labour and exploitation of child labour as a poor investment in cases! For full access to this PDF, sign in to an existing account or. Through specialization, improving infrastructures and creating competition ( Galli,2001 ) on labor, Wahab SN, Zodpey et... Role in economic Development in Ethiopia, especially in the results show that these children are at of!, some studies documented prevalence of mental and/or behavioral disorders these children are subjected to different risk,! Authors would like to thank literature review of the remaining studies, 25 were included many different types of labor... With one or more forms of abuse and child labor in his show, which was viewed in al TV! Will be seen as a poor investment in some cultures, since girls will be married off and leave.! Until 2012 child labor has its effects on child labour – researchgate.net the remaining studies, 25 were..: 1 * by Christiaan Grootaert and Ravi Kanbur Contents: 1 November 9, 2018, from https //www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/macroeconomics/macro-economic-indicators-and-the-business-cycle/macro-limitations-of-gdp/a/how-well-gdp-measures-the-well-being-of-society-cnx. The first step to ending child labor is one of the studies adjusted for 1995! The other groups.29 industries, and Life Sciences, Maastricht, the majority of which were cross-sectional be achieved 2015... Play a major concern future opportunities for the children and a control group ( Table 1 ) behalf Faculty...

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